Monday, May 25, 2020

The Naegleria Fowleri Amoeba - 1013 Words

Introduction The Naegleria fowleri amoeba resides in lakes, rivers, thermal springs, dirty swimming pool and sometimes soil. The amoebas thrive during the summer months due to the increase of temperature(Shakoor, Beg, and Mahmood 258). Naegleria amoeba infects and targets brain tissue of the central nervous system and the neuromuscular system. The central nervous system is responsible for integrating and responding to neural signals. The nervous system and muscles in the body work together to permit movement called the neuromuscular system. The brain is the main control for integrating sensory neurons and coordinating body functions: voluntary and involuntary. When needed to move a body part, a message is sent to the afferent sensory neurons, which go through the brain and into the spinal cord where the efferent motor neurons send an electrical signal to trigger the muscle to contract. Errors such as sliding of the actin and myosin filaments or failure to release neurotransmitters from the neuron can happen. The infection causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) (Shakoor, Beg, and Mahmood 258).. It cannot be contracted by person-to-person, or by drinking contaminated water. The amoeba enters the body via nose by infected water and/or dust and penetrates the cribriform plate(Shenoy, Wilson, and Prashanth [Page 309]). It travels to the brain by the nerves that transmit olfactory senses and causes PAM. It causes brain tissue damage and inflammation of the brain. TheShow MoreRelatedDescription Of The Amoeba Naegleria Fowleri853 Words   |  4 PagesIncluded in the kingdom Protista, the amoeba Naegleria fowleri has proven to be pathogenic when entering the brain through the nasal cavity. Out of the numerous species of Naegleria, only the single-celled fowleri is of vital concern to human health. This free-living ameboflagellate can be discovered in one of three stages depending on its surroundings (Fero 2010). The protozoan’s life cycle consists of a cystic phase which is resistant, a dormant biflagellate phase, and the dangerous trophozoiteRead MoreNaegleria Fowleri and Solid Organ Transplantation668 Words   |  3 PagesNaegleria fowleri and Solid Organ Transplantation – An Overview Naegleria fowleri commonly referred to as the â€Å"brain-eating amoeba†, is a free-living, warm fresh water amoeba, isolated from soil. Site of entrance of N. fowleri is when contaminated water moves up the nose, during swimming,nasal irritation, amoeba then passes the cribriform plate and reaches the brain causing primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).128 Cases were reported from 1962 -2012 in U.S.PAM usually affect young,healthy individualsRead MoreTthe Role of Amoeba in Human Disease805 Words   |  3 PagesReview the Role of Amoeba in Human Disease Introduction Free-living amoebae (FLA) are eukaryotic organism found ubiquitously in nature. They are found in soil (dust), air, water and air, which provide amoeba multiple opportunities to spread (c). These can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic. Pathogenic FLA can invade and cause opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections in humans, which are found in the genus Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia pedata (b). HartmannellaRead MoreAccording to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, meningitis is the inflammation of the1200 Words   |  5 Pagesparalysis. The bacteria travel to your brain after entering the body through the respiratory system (Karriem-Norwood, 2014). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, parasitic meningitis is caused by an amoeba entering the brain and destroying brain tissue. The amoeba enters through the nose and can only infect humans in the first stage of its life cycle, in which they are known as ameboid trophozoites. They are single-celled organisms and they reproduce by promitosis. They are alsoRead MoreN Fowleri Consists Of An Amoeba2180 Words   |  9 PagesThe trophozoite of N fowleri consists of an amoeba surrounded by a two-layer membrane. The cytoplasm contains free and bound ribosomes, as well as membrane-bound organelles. A smooth endoplasmic reticulum, a Golgi-like structure, mitochondria, vacuoles, and nucleus-containing nuclear envelope are present. Microfilaments create a supportive cytoskeleton. The N fowleri flagellate is pear-shaped. The cytoplasm has fewer vacuoles, and the components of a flagellar apparatus (flagellum, basal body, rootlet)

Friday, May 15, 2020

History and Members of The Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955 after West Germany became a part of NATO. It was formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance. The Warsaw Pact, made up of Central and Eastern European countries, was meant to counter the threat from the NATO countries. Each country in the Warsaw Pact pledged to defend the others against any outside military threat. While the organization stated that each nation would respect the sovereignty and political independence of the others, each country was in some way controlled by the Soviet Union. The pact dissolved at the end of the Cold War in 1991.   History of the Pact After  World War II, the Soviet Union sought to control as much of Central and Eastern Europe as it could. In the 1950s, West Germany was rearmed and allowed to join NATO. The countries that bordered West Germany were fearful that it would again become a military power, as it had been just a few years earlier. This fear caused Czechoslovakia to attempt to create a security pact with Poland and East Germany. Eventually, seven countries came together to form the Warsaw Pact: Albania (until 1968)BulgariaCzechoslovakiaEast Germany (until 1990)HungaryPolandRomaniaThe  Soviet Union The Warsaw Pact lasted for 36 years. In all of that time, there was never a direct conflict between the organization and NATO. However, there were many proxy wars, especially between the Soviet Union and the United States in places such as Korea and Vietnam. Invasion Of Czechoslovakia On Aug. 20, 1968, 250,000 Warsaw Pact  troops invaded Czechoslovakia in what was known as Operation Danube. During the operation, 108 civilians were killed and another 500 were wounded by the invading troops. Only Albania and Romania refused to participate in the invasion. East Germany did not send troops to Czechoslovakia but only because Moscow ordered its troops to stay away. Albania eventually left  the Warsaw Pact because of the invasion. The military action was an attempt by the Soviet Union to oust Czechoslovakias Communist Party leader Alexander Dubcek whose plans to reform his country did not align with the Soviet Unions wishes. Dubcek wanted to liberalize his nation and had many plans for reforms, most of which he was unable to initiate. Before Dubcek was arrested during the invasion, he urged citizens not to resist militarily because he felt that presenting a military defense would have meant exposing the Czech and Slovak peoples to a senseless bloodbath. This sparked many nonviolent protests throughout the country.   End of the Pact Between 1989 and 1991, the Communist parties in most of the countries in the Warsaw Pact were ousted. Many of the Warsaw Pacts member nations considered the organization to be essentially defunct in 1989 when none assisted Romania militarily during its violent revolution. The  Warsaw Pact  formally existed for another couple of years until 1991—just months before the USSR disbanded—when the organization was officially dissolved in Prague.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

History of the ECCE Sector in Ireland - 3332 Words

Introduction I am going to discuss the following topics in my report. I am going to explain the historical development of the ECCE sector in Ireland up to and including the present day. * Historical development of the early childhood care and education * Current ECCE provision by the state * Health and welfare * Equal opportunity legislation * Outline maintaining a quality ECCE environment that complies with relevant regulations and standards Main body Historical development of the early childhood care and education In the last 20 years Ireland has had a dramatic change in its society. Ireland has traditionally had a laissez-faire policy with respect to the childcare provision back in the day there was no such†¦show more content†¦* Free preschool year * Early start preschool programme * There is also the CCS scheme and the CETS scheme. The government have provided funding to child-minding facilities for the following reasons that they provide to the public free preschool year. They also have the early start preschool programme. Free preschool year The ECCE Scheme provides a free year of early childhood care and education for children of pre-school age. In general, children are eligible for the ECCE scheme if they are aged over 3 years 3 months and less than 4 years 7 months on 1 September of the year that they will be starting. The upper age limit can be extended in some cases. The State pays a capitation fee to participating playschools and daycare services. In return, they provide a pre-school service free of charge to all children within the qualifying age range for a set number of hours over a set period of weeks. In general, children only qualify for ECCE in one school year. However, a child who has been assessed as having a disability may be able to spread their free pre-school year over 2 years Early start preschool programme The Early Start Programme is aShow MoreRelatedEssay History Of The ECCE Sector In Ireland4049 Words   |  17 Pagesï » ¿ History of the ECCE sector in Ireland. Early care and education practice. 8th January 2015. Table of contents. Introduction. History of ECEC in Ireland. Free pre-school year programme. UN convention on the rights of the child (1989). Pre-school regulations. ECEC services currently available in Ireland. Occupations within the childcare sector. Childcare manager. A career plan. Challenges to achieving goals. Education and training needs. Bibliography. IntroductionRead MoreThe History and Development of the ECCE in Ireland2083 Words   |  9 PagesA, The History and development of the ECCE in Ireland The environments in which our youngest children live, grow and play have changed dramatically over the past century. For the best part of the twentieth century, young children were cared for in the family home and went to school sometime after the age of three. For much of that time, Irish society was largely agrarian based and children worked on the farm; work which had economic value to the family. Families were large, twice as large on average

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Down Syndrome Essay Research Paper Down SyndromeDown free essay sample

Down Syndrome Essay, Research Paper Down Syndrome Down Syndrome, which used to be called mongolianism, is a congenital deformity accompanied by moderate to severe mental deceleration, is caused by a chromosomal abnormalcy. Peoples with Down syndrome are frequently short in tallness and have a little, unit of ammunition caput with a high, flattened brow and split, dry lips and lingua. A typical characteristic is a crease of tegument, the epicanthic crease, on either side of the span of the olfactory organ. The thenar show a individual transverse fold and the colloidal suspensions have a consecutive fold from the heel to the infinite between the first and 2nd toes. These people are besides capable to inborn bosom defects and tend to develop leukaemia. Their intelligence quotient, IQ, normally ranges between 20 and 60, but with early intercession and proper instruction, some people reach higher degrees. The overall incidence of Down syndrome is about one in 700 births, but the hazard varies with the age of the female parent. We will write a custom essay sample on Down Syndrome Essay Research Paper Down SyndromeDown or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The rate of Down syndrome in kids born to 25 twelvemonth old female parents is about 1 in 2000, but the hazard increases to 1 in 200 for 35 twelvemonth olds and more than 1 in 40 for adult females older than 40 old ages. Prenatal trials such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus trying can be used to observe the chromosomal abnormalcy doing Down syndrome. In add-on, maternal blood trials can propose the presence of a foetus with Down syndrome when degrees of alphafetoprotein are lower than usual, or when degrees of odd estriol and human chorionic gonadotropin are unnatural. The chromosomal abnormalcy involved in most Ca Es of Down syndrome is trisomy 21, or the presence of three transcripts of the 21st chromosome. As a consequence, the affected individual has 47 chromosomes in all organic structure cells alternatively of the normal 46, although how this causes the status # 8217 ; s symptoms is non yet known. Scientists assume that the ground for the abnormal chromosomal combination is the fertilisation of an egg cell holding 24 chromosomes by a sperm with a normal mixture of 23, but they have besides found that the sperm can transport the excess chromosome every bit good. The unnatural egg cell or sperm is derived from a source cell in which the brace of 21st chromosomes holds together and passes into the same sperm or egg cell alternatively of dividing. In the type of Down syndrome called translocation, the excess chromosome 21 stuff is attached to one of the other chromosomes ; when some, but non all, of the organic structure # 8217 ; s cells carry an excess chromosome 21, the status is a type of Down syndrome called mosaicism. Down syndrome is non yet antiphonal to medical intervention, but better medical attention of the attach toing upsets and infections now consequences in an about normal life span alternatively of the old life anticipation of about 14 old ages. The badly retarded may still be institutionalized, but many Down syndrome kids are raised at place, where their full potency can be developed. Although, with an mean mental age of about eight old ages, they continue to necessitate a protective environment, many grownups with Down syndrome work in sheltered workshops ; some hold regular occupations in concern and industry. Bibliography www.downs.com www.americahealth.net

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Kosovo Essays - AlbaniaSerbia Relations, Kosovo War,

Kosovo Kosovo U.S. Involvement in Kosovo War has been waged in the Balkans for thousands of years. Yugoslavia has been divided, reunited, divided again, undergone wars and been through depressions. Each country within the Yugoslavia region has experienced hardships due to a failing economy, poor leadership, and civil wars. In the past few years, a major upheaval in the political structure and the disputes concerning land between the different religions and ethnicity's has caused a civil war. The country and ethnic group of this recent dispute is Serbia and Kosovo. The Albanian Kosovars want their independence from Serbia, while the Serbs consider Kosovo the location in which their cultural and ethnic identity is placed. The United States became involved in the Balkan conflict in the end of 1998 (Kosovo 1). U.S. involvement in Kosovo is making matters worse for the innocent people of Kosovo. Kosovo, a small area in the center of the former Yugoslavia, is playing an important role in the Balk an conflict. In the summer of 1998, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) decided to launch a guerilla warfare attack on Serbia in attempts to liberate themselves and gain their cultural rites. The President of Serbia, Slobodan Milosevic, is refusing to allow Kosovo to break away from Serbia without a fight. Kosovo is a site of great emotional significance to the Serbs; it is the site of a historic defeat by the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century. From this defeat, Kosovo became the cradle of Serbia's cultural and ethnic identity. Milosevic began an ethnic cleansing campaign in which he killed thousands of ethnic Albanians. NATO forces, as well as the United States, began stepping in in the winter of 1998. The United States made a cease-fire contract with Milosevic, which ended in the early months of 1999 (1). The United States believes that it is benefiting Kosovo by intervening. Many diplomats are saying that U.S. involvement in Kosovo is helping the Albanians because it is stopping th e ethnic cleansing by Milosevic. Another argument for U.S. involvement is that the air strikes against the Serbs will dampen their spirits and attacks against the Albanians. A third argument for U.S. involvement is that it will stop from drawing in other surrounding countries into the war. (1) The first argument for U.S. intervention is easily refuted. The U.S. diplomats believe that the U.S. is benefiting the situation in Kosovo by intervening. The US's main goal in Kosovo is to stop the ethnic cleansing conducted by Milosevic. The manner in which the U.S. is trying to resolve this conflict is wrong. The U.S. began bombing villages and towns in which ethnic Albanians live. This drove out the Albanians and forced them to immigrate to other countries. It seems that the United States believes that ethnic cleansing is wrong, but bombing innocent people is acceptable (Landlay 1). The Serbs are using the NATO air raids as a way to kill the ethnic Albanians. The Albanians are being used a s shields as the NATO forces bomb the Serbs. On one occasion, in the city of Kamena Glava, five hundred Albanian men were killed (Atrocity5). The Serbs are using NATO forces against what they are fighting for. U.S. involvement in Kosovo would be more welcomed if they weren't killing innocent people and instead, helping them come to a peaceful resolution between the two areas. However, the air strikes against Serbia are believed to be Clinton's goal for protecting U.S. investors and exporters. Although the humanitarian tragedies of Kosovo are in the foremost eye of the public, U.S. economic interests are in foremost eye of the government (Landlay 2). The second argument for U.S. intervention can also be refuted. Air strikes are proven to be ineffective in winning a war. This fact has been proven many times in other wars such as World War II and Vietnam. On the contrary, however, air strikes often stiffen the will to resist, as was the case in World War II with the German citizens. Th e Serbs, as history has predicted, have intensified their aggressions against the Kosovar Albanians. This has caused even more Albanians to flee from Kosovo. The Serbs spirits are far from becoming damp. If, once again, history prevails,

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Facebook vs Twitter Case Study Analysis Essay Example

Facebook vs Twitter Case Study Analysis Essay Example Facebook vs Twitter Case Study Analysis Essay Facebook vs Twitter Case Study Analysis Essay Facebook ( originally The facebook ) is a societal networking web site launched in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg. so 23. while analyzing psychological science at Harvard University. Membership was ab initio limited to pupils of Harvard College. but shortly the societal site was later extended to other Boston universities. the Ivy League and finally all US universities ( Yadav. 2006 ) . It became Facebook. com in August 2005 after the site’s reference was obtained for a comparatively meagre $ 200. 000. By the terminal of the undermentioned twelvemonth it was besides unfastened to high schools. As of September 2006. Facebook was extended beyond educational associations to anybody with a registered electronic mail reference. They have over 175 million active users worldwide presently and are turning every twenty-four hours. Facebook’s mission statement seems simple: Facebook’s mission is to give people the power to portion and do the universe more unfastened and connected ( Reagan. 2009 ) . Twitter still no concern theoretical account but it has a new mission statement: To immediately connect people everyplace to what’s most of import to them. ( Evans. 2011 ) . Who is better than who? Or one could state who is traveling to be the male monarch of the hill? Facebook has tried to buy Twitter with no success. It is difficult to state who will come out on top or who will be the ultimate victor of the societal war. There are some cardinal differences between the sites ( Lacy. 2009 ) . It’s far easier to happen people on Facebook and most of the clip you can state if it’s really them. Facebook and Twitter are both free sites and are both popular. Facebook and Twitter are both clip conversations. but Twitter is a small faster. They both seem to hold their good and bad qualities. Twitter has a character limitation and has no popups. Chirrup users can besides post to their Facebook page. Facebook does non hold a character bound. They both can post images and pictures. but Facebook has more capacity for sharing pictures and exposures without coercing you to associate out to another window ( Lacy. 2009 ) . Facebook has a better privateness barricading system. if you can happen it with the of all time altering betterments. A batch of users are non cognizant of this option. Facebook allows concerns to publicize and make more people faster. Facebook makes there gross off the ads on their site. enchantress keeps it free for their users. Facebook has games for their users to play every bit good. These games besides generate some of their gross. Twitter has no games and the lone beginning of gross is its investors. Facebook is threatened with losing users to a less familiar. societal networking web site. The major job that exists is the fact that Twitter has a controlled degree of societal networking. Facebook does non let one manner interaction options significance that if I want to follow someone’s stations so they themselves would hold to accept my friend petition. and Facebook besides does non let person to track existent clip information is ever adding betterments that the client base does non wish. With this go oning it may intend that many Facebook members may go forth and get down utilizing chirrup because of some of the limitations that are placed on the members of Facebook. The first alternate solution is for Facebook to buy leading star engineering and offer the capableness to track real-time information. This solution will assist to extinguish Twitter’s current advantage of holding the capableness to track real-time information. Another alternate solution is to develop a manner for one-way relationships to be possible on Facebook. while keeping its’ security. Many users want to air their position information. but non really follow all of their position viewing audiences and acquire slightly annoyed with the flow of game posters that clog up their pages. I know I do to the point that I log away and sometimes travel and look into out Twitter. In decision. there will neer be a happy medium here. Technology is invariably germinating and there will likely be another societal web that will be created and pose menaces to both of these webs. In my sentiment. Facebook is more personal. whereas Twitter is more Hollywood. Facebook trades with reaching old friends and household members and Twitter is about following an entertainer. Myspace is merely out of infinite as there aren’t truly excessively many users out at that place any longer. LinkedIn is a manner to web via concern and doesn’t contain the content that any of these sites do. as it wouldn’t be professional. Facebook will decidedly be around for a long clip. as will Twitter. Most can’t have one without the other. I know I can’t.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Tax exempt bonds Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Tax exempt bonds - Coursework Example Access to capital is critical to keep facilities current, add major information technology systems and strengthen quality initiatives .Debt financing is a major source of capital for health care organizations. Cost of capital is a major determinant of the type of debt financing. Bond issuing is one option of debt finance that health care organization can use to finance their projects. For financial and capital planning to be effective, hospital leaders, including chief executive officers, chief financial officers and board members, must be aware of the changing conditions of the capital markets and the types of capital available. The types of debt financing include tax-exempt and taxable bond offerings and such nontraditional debt offering as off-balance sheet options and participating bond transactions. A sound financial plan should include maintaining a strong equity portfolio and managing debt to minimize cost and maximize access to capital. The following steps allow hospitals to effectively incorporate debt financing as a component of their strategic and financial planning process. 1.   Building a financing team:   Building a knowledgeable financing team is the primary responsibility of the CFO. The team should be responsive to variations in the financial market including changes in interest rates, regulatory requirements and ratings activity, among other things. The team should include members from outside the organization, such as legal counsel, underwriters, auditors, financial advisers, bond issuers and bond trustees. 2.   Active management of debt and equity portfolios:      Hospital financial leaders must actively manage debt and equity portfolios to account for changes in the financial markets and the organization’s financial performance. Senior leaders and the board should be kept abreast of the organization’s financial performance, including the organization’s capital outlook. 3.   Evaluate debt capacity:  Ã‚   De bt capacity is the amount of debt an organization is able to sustain within its credit rating profile. The ability to incur debt is a sign of an organization’s financial strength. Determining debt capacity will help organizations strategically allocate capital and also help calculate how much capital they need to obtain from other sources. 4.   Determine the appropriate mix of debt and equity financing:  Ã‚   Determining the appropriate mix of debt and equity financing is a complex process which is accomplished, in part, by assessing the organization’s debt capacity, the level of risk the organization is willing and able to accept and rating agency benchmarks. Financial leaders must determine the appropriate mix of equity and debt financing, including the appropriate mix of traditional and nontraditional debt, to secure the maximum amount of capital at the most favorable rates. 5.   Calculate the appropriate rate mix for debt:      Calculating the appropriate mix of fixed rates and variable rates is an important component of a hospital’s strategic financial plan. The appropriate mix is influenced by the organization’s bond ratings, availability of free cash and bond insurance, interest rates and willingness to accept risk. Fixed-rate debt is secure and becomes part of an organization’s capital structure until it matures. Variable rates are historically lower than fixed rates, resulting in savings to the organization, but carry no guarantee over time. Variable-rate debt is subject to changes in interest rates, regulatory activity and an organization’s credit rating. 6.   Diversify variable-rate debt:      Variable-rate debt can take different forms. They include variable-rate demand bonds and insured and uninsured auction rate securities,